Friday, August 7, 2009

Evidence for the Judaic Marriage Imperative

Genesis 1:27-28

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.

God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground."

Genesis 2:18

The Lord God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make a helper [The Hebrew azar is also translated as partner.] suitable for him."
Genesis 9:1

Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth."
Sirach 36:24-26 (2nd c.)

A man with no wife becomes a homeless wanderer. . . . So who will trust a man who has no home, and lodges wherever night finds him.

Talmud, Kiddushin 29a (2nd-3rd c.)
He must circumcise him, redeem him, teach him Torah, teach him a trade, and find a wife for him.
Talmud, Yebamoth 64a
Whoever renounces marriage violates the commandment to increase and multiply; he is to be looked upon as a murderer who lessens the number of beings created in the image of God.
Jewish Encyclopedia, Marriage Laws:
Age for Marriage.

The first positive commandment of the Bible, according to rabbinic interpretation (Maimonides, "Minyan ha-Miẓwot," 212), is that concerning the propagation of the human species (Gen. i. 28). It is thus considered the duty of every Israelite to marry as early in life as possible. Eighteen years is the age set by the Rabbis (Ab. v. 24); and any one remaining unmarried after his twentieth year is said to be cursed by God Himself (Ḳid. 29b). Some urge that children should marry as soon as they reach the age of puberty, i.e., the fourteenth year (Sanh. 76b); and R. Ḥisda attributed his mental superiority to the fact that he was married when he was but sixteen years old (Ḳid. l.c.). It was, however, strictly forbidden for parents to give their children in marriage before they had reached the age of puberty (Sanh. 76b). A man who, without any reason, refused to marry after he had passed his twentieth year was frequently compelled to do so by the court. To be occupied with the study of the Torah was regarded as a plausible reason for delaying marriage; but only in very rare instances was a man permitted to remain in celibacy all his life (Yeb. 63b; Maimonides, "Yad," Ishut, xv. 2, 3; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, 1, 1-4;
see Celibacy).

Wednesday, August 5, 2009

More on Montgomery Documents 1 and 2

From "Appendix 2: Origins of Documents 1 and 2," The God-Kings of Europe:

When I first published these documents in Montgomery Millenium in 2002 I gave an incorrect reference for them. The correct provenance for these documents is as follows:

Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was the foremost scholar of this day. He studied at the College of Guienne in Bordeaux and later the University of Paris, first under Turnebus and later under Jean Dorat. It was the latter who recommended Scalinger [sic] to Louis de Chastaigner, Lord of La Roche Pozay, with whom he became a lifelong friend and with whom he travelled throughout Europe, studying and buying books and manuscripts.

Scaliger became fluent in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Arabic and acquired a remarkable collection of original manuscripts in those languages. He also had the opportunity to use the Library of a man named Cujas in Valence, whose library consisted of seven or eight rooms with no less than five hundred original manuscripts.

In 1593 he became Professor at the University of Leiden and remained so for the rest of his life. He became the bane of the Roman Catholic Church and the Jesuits, pointing out to them that many of the books on which they relied were either bogus or at least doubtful. In his De emendatione temporum (1583), he revolutionised all the received wisdom on ancient chronology and pointed out that it was necessary to include the chronology of the ancient Persians, Babylonians, Egyptians and Hebrews, hitherto considered worthless.

When he died in 1609 he left all his books and manuscripts to the University Library, including the Leiden Papyrus, dealing with magical spells supposedly used by Jesus (tous mes livres de langues étrangères, Hebraics, Syriens, Arabics, Ethiopiens).

For complete story see Joseph Scaliger: A Biography, by Jakob Bernays, Berlin, (1855) or Anthony Grafton -- Joseph Scaliger: A Study of Classical Scholarship, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press, 1983 & 1993). See also:

Document 1 is almost certainly a complete or extended version of St. Matthew's Gospel written in Syria around 150 AD (See Morton Smith's book, The Secret Gospel of Mark, p. 142). He discovered a fragment in Greek of the unexpurgated version, which has been authenticated.

William Montgomery (1633-1706) also played a role in these documents. He was educated at the University of Leiden where he studied Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He translated two of these documents into English (Documents 3 and 4) using an English not dissimilar to the Authorised Version of the Bible. These versions he kept and later put them into the Library of County Down, Ireland, when appointed "Custos Rotulorum" by the Duke of Ormonde. It is also quite likely that he translated the following Document 1 fragment.